Gynaecological Cancer in chennai

Gynaecological Cancer

Gynaecological Cancer treatment in chennai

The cancers that arise in a woman’s reproductive system are known as ‘Gynaecological Cancer’. They are uterine, ovarian, cervical, vulval and vaginal cancer.

All gynaecological cancers show certain common signs and symptoms such as abnormal vaginal bleeding, foul-smelling discharge, lower abdominal pain, abdominal distension etc.

Uterine Cancer

Cancer of the uterus is called uterine cancer, or endometrial cancer.

How does it develop?

Most uterine cancers begin in the uterus lining (endometrium).
uterine cancer is more common in post-menopausal women.

Key signs and symptoms

Around 90% of endometrial cancer diagnoses are reported due to irregular or postmenopausal vaginal bleeding.
The risk factors for endometrial cancers are obesity, Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), medications that affect hormone levels etc.

Ovarian cancer

The most common cancer found in post-menopausal women is ovarian cancer. However, it can affect women of any age.
There are different types of ovarian cancer:
    • Epithelial ovarian cancer
    • Fallopian tube cancer
    • Germ cell ovarian cancer (a rare type of cancer more commonly affects teenagers).
    • Stromal ovarian cancer
    • Metastatic cancers (Cancers from other organs in the body spreading to the ovaries)

How does it develop?

In ovarian cancer, cells in the ovary start to grow abnormally. It can spread to the abdomen and pelvis if the cancer isn’t identified at an early stage.

Key signs

Some of the symptoms of ovarian cancer are often the same as for other less serious conditions, such as pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS), or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Hence, it can be difficult to recognise the symptoms in the early stages.
The more prevalent symptoms are:
    • persistent bloating and increased abdominal size
    • persistent abdominal and pelvic pain
    • change in bowel habits
    • feeling full quickly, difficulty eating or feeling nauseous
In some women with the disease, there will be back pain, pain during sex and needing to pass urine more frequently than usual.

Cervical cancer

The cancer of the cervix, a structure connecting the woman’s uterus and her vagina is called cervical cancer.

How does it develop?

It is usually caused by a common sexually transmitted infection called human papillomavirus (HPV)
Cervical cancer is most common in women aged 30-45. Pap smear tests are used to screen cervical cancers. The risk factors for Cervical Cancer includes Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, Immune system deficiency, Herpes, smoking, age etc.

Key signs and symptoms
    • Unusual bleeding
    • Vaginal bleeding, especially after having sex
    • Bleeding at any other time, after the menopause or after your expected monthly period

Other symptoms
    • Unpleasant smelling vaginal discharge
    • Pain and discomfort during sex.

Vulval cancer

Cancer of the vulva is rare cancer. It affects mostly women over 60.

How does it develop?
Persistent Inflammation due to skin conditions, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may develop into an early vulval cancer.

Key signs
    • Soreness or pain
    • A lasting itch
    • Raised, thickened, white, red or dark patches on the skin of the vulva
    • A growth or an open sore visible on the skin
    • A mole on the vulva that changes colour or shape
    • Swelling or a lump in the vulva

Vaginal cancer

Vaginal cancer is a very rare disease that originates in the vagina.

How does it develop?
It begins when cells lining the vagina undergo malignant change and develop into a lesion or tumour by changing their structure and growth pattern.

Key signs
    • Unexpected bleeding
    • Vaginal discharge that may be blood-stained or foul-smelling 
    • Vaginal pain during sex
    • A vaginal growth or lump  
    • Pain when urinating and vaginal itch
    • Persistent vaginal and pelvic pain

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When to see your doctor?

Consult your gynaecologist if you have any of the above-mentioned symptoms. Some of these symptoms may be mimicked by other conditions such as infections and hormonal imbalance. Timely consultation may lead to early diagnosis and better treatment outcome.


Authored By Dr. M. Banupriya MBBS, MDRT, FIAMS, Ph.D, CCEPC (Palliative care), Consultant Oncologist

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